Bijensterfte neemt wereldwijd en in Nederland alarmerend toe. Deze website beoogt kennis en ontwikkelingen in wetenschap en beleid rond de vele oorzaken van bijensterfte inzichtelijk en toegankelijk te maken voor een breed publiek. Aanleiding was de brief in NRC van 2 mei 2009. We beogen verifieerbare, traceerbare informatie te bieden met bronvermeldingen en links naar de primaire bronnen uit de wetenschappelijke literatuur.

- Uitleg probleem neonicotine insecticiden (o.a. imidacloprid)
- Effects of neonicotinoid pesticide pollution of Dutch surface water on non-target species abundance
- Volg de meest actuele ontwikkelingen via Twitter

Recente Belgische studie: Heeft Imidacloprid in mais invloed op bijensterfte?

Een in april verschenen studie van onze Zuiderburen stelt "Our results support the hypothesis that imidacloprid seed-treated maize has no negative impact on honey bees". De Franse biodiversiteitsonderzoekster Laura Maxim plaatst grote kanttekeningen bij de opzet van deze studie.

Solving the Mystery of the Vanishing Bees

The mysterious ailment called colony collapse disorder has wiped out large numbers of the bees that pollinate a third of our crops. The causes turn out to be surprisingly complex, but solutions are emerging.

* Millions of beehives worldwide have emptied out as honeybees mysteriously disappear, putting at risk nearly 100 crops that require pollination.
* Research is pointing to a complex disease in which combinations of factors, including farming practices, make bees vulnerable to viruses.

New Risk Assessment Approach for Systemic Insecticides: The Case of Honey Bees and Imidacloprid (Gaucho)

Marie-Pierre Halm, A. Rortais, G. Arnold, J. N. Taséi, and S. Rault


The procedure to assess the risk posed by systemic insecticides to honey bees follows the European Directives and depends on the determination of the Hazard Quotient (HQ), though this parameter is not adapted to these molecules. This paper describes a new approach to assess more specifically the risk posed by systemic insecticides to honey bees with the example of imidacloprid (Gaucho). This approach is based on the new and existing chemical substances Directive in which levels of exposure (PEC, Predicted Exposure Concentration) and toxicity (PNEC, Predicted No Effect Concentration) are compared. PECs are determined for different categories of honey bees in relation to the amounts of contaminated pollen and nectar they might consume. PNECs are calculated from data on acute, chronic, and sublethal toxicities of imidacloprid to honey bees, to which selected assessment factors are applied. Results highlight a risk for all categories of honey bees, in particular for hive bees. These data are discussed in the light of field observations made on honey bee mortalities and disappearances. New perspectives are given to better determine the risk posed by systemic insecticides to honey bees.

Toelatingsbesluiten Imidacloprid, Clothianidine en Thiamethoxam in Nederland

[Dit overzicht is niet actueel kijk ook op: voor een completer beeld]

In de afgelopen 15 jaar heeft het College voor de Toelating van Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en Biociden in Wageningen de toelating van drie systemische insecticiden die zeer giftig zijn voor bijen gestaag verruimd voor tal van gewassen. Het gaat metname om imidacloprid en de laatste jaren ook om clothianidine en thiamethoxam. Vanaf 2004 is de toelating ingrijpend verruimd en daarmee is het gebruik zeer sterk toegenomen: meer dan vertienvoudigd. In de bestrijdingsmiddelenatlas ( is dit vanaf 2004 dan ook terug te zien in de sterke toename van normoverschrijdingen van imidacloprid in het oppervlaktewater van met name de glastuinbouw en bollengebieden. De laatste drie jaar is de toelating opnieuw fors verruimd

Een overzicht van de belangrijkste toelatingsbesluiten van het Ctgb:

Behaviour of Imidacloprid in Fields. Toxicity for Honey Bees

J. M. Bonmatin · I. Moineau · R. Charvet · M. E. Colin · C. Fleche · E. R. Bengsch

Following evidence for the intoxication of bees, the systemic insecticide imidacloprid was suspected
from the mid nineties of having harmful effects. Recently, some studies have demonstrated that
imidacloprid is toxic for the bees at sub-lethal doses. These doses are evaluated in the range between
1 and 20 μg kg–1, or less. It appeared thus necessary to study the fate of imidacloprid in the environment
at such low levels. Thus, we developed methods for the determination of low amounts, in
the μg kg–1 range, of the insecticide imidacloprid in soils, plants and pollens using high pressure liquid
chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC/APCI/MS/MS). The extraction and separation
methods were performed according to quality assurance criteria, good laboratory practices and the
European Community’s criteria applicable to banned substances (directive 96/23 EC). The linear concentration
range of application was 1–50 μg kg–1 of imidacloprid, with a relative standard deviation of
2.9% at 1 μg kg–1. The limit of detection and quantification are respectively LOD = 0.1 μg kg–1 and
LOQ = 1 μg kg–1 and are suited to the sub-lethal dose range. This technique allows the unambiguous
identification and quantification of imidacloprid. The results show the remanence of the insecticide in
soils, its ascent into plants during flowering and its bioavailability in pollens.
Key words: imidacloprid, insecticide, Gaucho®, analysis, soils, plants, pollens, bees

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Imidacloprid maakt sociale insecten zoals mieren en bijen vatbaarder voor ziekten

Een Canadese Imker heeft zich uitvoerig in de wetenschappelijke discussie over de bijensterfte verdiept. Hij schreef er een artikel over met onder meer dit opmerkelijke feit:

"I would draw your attention to this quote, from the label of Premise 75, a Bayer product with 75% imidacloprid and 25% inert used to kill termites and ants (other social insects like bees): "Premise causes a range of effects in termites, they stop feeding and are unable to maintain their colony. A second effect, exclusive to Premise, is called Premise plus Nature. This product makes termites susceptible to infection by naturally occurring organisms. Either way, the termites die and your home is protected". Exactly, my point, weaken the colony of bees with lethal and sublethal effects and surely disease will set in, and it is crass to use this effect to advertise a product, and then use it to blame beekeepers' problems on diseases."

Bijen en mieren leven beide in een colonie. De toegenomen ziektes bij bijenvolken en de toegenomen blootstelling aan imidacloprid vallen samen in de tijd. Het wordt tijd dat dit mogelijke verband beter onderzocht wordt.

Nieuw Zeeland slaat alarm over 32 bestrijdingsmiddelen die zeer giftig zijn voor bijen

Honey bees vital for agricultural industry
Sue Kedgley, New Zealand Herald 4 May 2009

New Zealand is slowly waking up to the realisation that honey bees are indispensable to our agriculture, horticulture, environment and economy.

Bijenhouders in de Verenigde Staten vragen aandacht voor problemen met Imidacloprid

Ezine, 26 March 2009

These comments, submitted by the National Honey Bee Advisory Board to EPA concerning the registration of imidacloprid, a systemic pesticide produced by Bayer Chemical Company, have been edited here because of length. But the stories have not been changed or altered. The NHBAB consists of beekeepers from both the AHPA and the ABF, and represents most of the nation’s commercial beekeepers. EPA now must act on these and other comments regarding this compound. At the same time, this group of beekeepers and Bayer are meeting to discuss continued research with this compound. Time will tell if increased regulation, or more precise research improve the situation.

Beekeepers from around the United States, and around the world, have had persistent problems associated with the use of the systemic pesticide imidacloprid. Since the first uses of imidacloprid in France in 1994 on sunflowers beekeepers reported problems. Soon the condition was given a name in France: “mad bee disease.” Problems reported by beekeepers, combined with mounting independent scientific data, caused the French Minister of Agriculture to suspend the use of imidacloprid on sunflowers in January of 1999. In February 2004, France extended the suspension to include uses on corn. At the same time they further broadened the ban on systemic insecticides to include the chemical fipronil.

Nederlands toelatingsbeleid nieuwe generatie insecticiden verzuimt bijenvolken te beschermen

De sterfte van complete bijenvolken bij Nederlandse imkers - waarbij niet enkele bijen maar het hele volk in een bijenkast verdwijnt - is de afgelopen zes jaar verdubbeld. Ook elders in Europa en de Verenigde Staten neemt bijensterfte alarmerend toe. In delen van China moeten fruittelers al noodgedwongen met de hand bestuiven. Gevolgen van de wereldwijde bijensterfte voor landbouw en natuur kunnen catastrofaal zijn. Terecht wordt gesproken van een dreigende wereldwijde bestuivingscrisis.

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