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Het grote belang van bestuivers (pollinators) voor mens en natuur.
Beknopt overzichtsartikel: Bijensterfte: een nieuw risico

Wat weten we eigenlijk over bijensterfte en neonicotinoiden?

Heldere uitleg van de stand van kennis over het vraagstuk van bijensterfte en neonicotinoiden in een Studium Generale college van 90 minuten door Prof. dr. Jeroen P. van der Sluijs.

Pollinators and Global Food Security: the Need for Holistic Global Stewardship

Over the past decades, both wild and domesticated insect pollinators are in dramatic decline, which puts at stake the existence of species, ecosystem resilience and global food security. Globally, 87 of major food crops depend on animal pollination. Together these account for 35 % of the world food production volume. Pollinator mediated crops are indispensable for essential micronutrients in the human diet. Many ornamental plants as well as crops for fibre, fodder, biofuels, timber and phytopharmaceuticals also depend on insect pollinators. This article aims to map the current situation of pollinators worldwide, with a focus on the critical role of pollinators in the human food chain and ecosystem sustainability, their intrinsic and extrinsic value, as well as the causes of their declines and the interventions needed to conserve them, in order to develop an argument for the importance of conserving and restoring pollinator populations and diversity. The present pollinator crisis threatens global and local food security, can worsen the problems of hidden hunger, erodes ecosystem resilience, and can destabilise ecosystems that form our life support system. An integrated approach that simultaneously addresses the key drivers is needed. This includes creation and restoration of floral and nesting resources, a global phase out of prophylactic use of neonicotinoids and fipronil, improvement of test protocols in authorisation of agrochemicals, and restoration and maintenance of independence in regulatory science. The authors argue that an international treaty for global pollinator stewardship and pollinator ecosystem restoration should be initiated in order to systemically counteract the current crisis.

Bijentelweekend 12 en 13 mei 2012. Doe mee!

Zaterdag 12 en zondag 13 mei 2012 is het landelijke bijentelweekend. Iedereen met een tuin, balkon of plantsoen in de buurt kan meedoen. Organisatoren KNNV, EIS en de Bijenstichting willen weten welke bijensoorten u het meeste ziet. Ga op zoek naar wilde bijen met de speciale zoekkaart in uw hand en geef uw waarnemingen door op

Spatial and Temporal Trends of Global Pollination Benefit

ABSTRACT: Pollination is a well-studied and at the same time a threatened ecosystem service. A significant part of global crop production depends on or profits from pollination by animals. Using detailed information on global crop yields of 60 pollination dependent or profiting crops, we provide a map of global pollination benefits on a 5′ by 5′ latitude-longitude grid. The current spatial pattern of pollination benefits is only partly correlated with climate variables and the distribution of cropland. The resulting map of pollination benefits identifies hot spots of pollination benefits at sufficient detail to guide political decisions on where to protect pollination services by investing in structural diversity of land use. Additionally, we investigated the vulnerability of the national economies with respect to potential decline of pollination services as the portion of the (agricultural) economy depending on pollination benefits. While the general dependency of the agricultural economy on pollination seems to be stable from 1993 until 2009, we see increases in producer prices for pollination dependent crops, which we interpret as an early warning signal for a conflict between pollination service and other land uses at the global scale. Our spatially explicit analysis of global pollination benefit points to hot spots for the generation of pollination benefits and can serve as a base for further planning of land use, protection sites and agricultural policies for maintaining pollination services.

Tijdschrift Entomologische Berichten: themanummer bijen

Het tijdschrift Entomologische Berichten heeft ter gelegenhed van "2012 Jaar van de Bij" een speciaal themanummer over bijen uitgebracht dat niet alleen voor insectendeskundigen maar ook voor een breder publiek interessant is. Hierin passeren in zo'n 150 pagina's en 20 artikelen zeer uiteenlopende bijenonderwerpen de revue. Enkele voorbeelden:
• Oorzaken van de achteruitgang van wilde bijen in Noordwest-Europa
• Het ondergrondse leven van de gewone sachembij
• Slaapgedrag en slaapgezelschappen van solitaire bijen
• Nesthulp voor bijen en wespen

De stukken zijn toegankelijk geschreven en geheel is rijk geïllustreerd met zeer fraaie foto's. Een aanrader voor iedereen die nieuwsgierig is naar de vele facetten van het bijenleven!

Worldwide honey bee colony losses continue

International Bee Research Association Press Release 1 February 2012
Since 2006 there has been concern worldwide about losses of honey bee colonies, especially the phenomenon of “Colony Collapse Disorder” in the USA. Information about the extent of these losses has,to date, been patchy, unsystematic and difficult to compare year on year and from country to country. Today, for the first time, the results of systematic surveys in Europe, north America, China, Israel and Turkey are published together in the Journal of Apicultural Research.

New directions in crop protection

Current Biology, Volume 21, Issue 17, 13 September, 2011
The spread of herbicide-resistant weeds, progress in genomics, climate change and the continuing worries about pollinator decline are forcing companies to rethink their approach to crop protection. Michael Gross reports.

Wilde bijen zelf herkennen met

Wilde bijenspecialist Dr. Arie Koster ontwikkelde een website met overzichtelijke zoekkaarten waarmee je zelf eenvoudig wilde bijen kunt herkennen. De zoekkaart voor wilde bijen geeft een overzicht van bijengeslachten. Bij ieder bijengeslacht is er een link naar meer informatie.

Contribution of Pollinator-Mediated Crops to Nutrients in the Human Food Supply

ABSTRACT: The contribution of nutrients from animal pollinated world crops has not previously been evaluated as a biophysical measure for the value of pollination services. This study evaluates the nutritional composition of animal-pollinated world crops. We calculated pollinator dependent and independent proportions of different nutrients of world crops, employing FAO data for crop production, USDA data for nutritional composition, and pollinator dependency data according to Klein et al. (2007). Crop plants that depend fully or partially on animal pollinators contain more than 90% of vitamin C, the whole quantity of Lycopene and almost the full quantity of the antioxidants β-cryptoxanthin and β-tocopherol, the majority of the lipid, vitamin A and related carotenoids, calcium and fluoride, and a large portion of folic acid. Ongoing pollinator decline may thus exacerbate current difficulties of providing a nutritionally adequate diet for the global human population.

Wilde bestuivers in appel- en perenboomgaarden in de Betuwe

In opdracht van het Ministerie van LNV voerden EIS-Nederland en Alterra in 2010 een onderzoek uit naar wilde bestuivende insecten in appel- en perenboomgaarden in de Betuwe tussen Zaltbommel en Echteld.

Aanpak achteruitgang wilde bestuivers - tussenrapportage

In het kader van het BIJ1 onderzoeksproject heeft Alterra een tussenrapportage uitgebracht over de achteruitgang van wilde bestuivers. In dit onderzoek is aan de hand van bloembezoek gegevens de relevantie van wilde bijen voor de bestuiving van gewassen in de Nederlandse landbouw onderzocht. Gebleken is dat het merendeel van de Nederlandse wilde bijensoorten relevant kan worden geacht voor de bestuiving van landbouwgewassen.

J. Scheper, M. Reemer en D. Kleijn, 2011, tussenrapportage aanpak achteruitgang wilde bestuivers (BIJ-1)

Wild bees and not honeybees the main pollinators of UK crops

Researchers from the University of Reading have shown that wild bees are the unsung heroes for our food security and not honeybees as previously thought.

Parallel Declines in Pollinators and Insect-Pollinated Plants in Britain and the Netherlands

Despite widespread concern about declines in pollination services, little is known about the patterns of change in most pollinator assemblages. By studying bee and hoverfly assemblages in Britain and the Netherlands, we found evidence of declines (pre-versus post-1980) in local bee diversity in both countries; however, divergent trends were observed in hoverflies. Depending on the assemblage and location, pollinator declines were most frequent in habitat and flower specialists, in univoltine species, and/or in nonmigrants. In conjunction with this evidence, outcrossing plant species that are reliant on the declining pollinators have themselves declined relative to other plant species. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest a causal connection between local extinctions of functionally linked plant and pollinator species.

Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification

On organic farms near natural habitat, we found that native bee communities could provide full pollination services even for a crop with heavy pollination requirements (e.g., watermelon, Citrullus lanatus), without the intervention of managed honey bees. All other farms, however, experienced greatly reduced diversity and abundance of native bees, resulting in insufficient pollination services from native bees alone. We found that diversity was essential for sustaining the service, because of year-to-year variation in community composition. Continued degradation of the agro-natural landscape will destroy this “free” service, but conservation and restoration of bee habitat are potentially viable economic alternatives for reducing dependence on managed honey bees.

Decline of bumble bees is related to agricultural intensification

Numerous studies from Europe and the US have documented recent declines in many species of bumble bees, and such declines were often observed in areas where anthropogenic changes in habitat have occurred, such as agricultural intensification and urbanisation. Attempts to conserve bumble bees should involve wildlife-friendly approaches to agriculture, such as increasing agricultural land set-asides and hedgerows, and employing integrated pest management.

In de Benelux worden vlinders, libellen en waterjuffers ook met uitsterven bedreigd

De toestand van de dagvlinders in de provincie Antwerpen is verre van rooskleurig: een vrij groot deel van de oorspronkelijk aanwezige soorten is verdwenen en van het resterende deel is ook een groot aantal in meer of mindere mate bedreigd. Deze toestand is niet beperkt tot de provincie Antwerpen maar is vergelijkbaar met heel Vlaanderen, Nederland en Wallonië. Ook libellen en waterjuffers worden in de Benelux met uitsterven bedreigd.

Franstalig dossier bijensterfte

In het Juni 2009 nummer van het Franse INRA magazine (L'Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) staat een artikel "Le déclin des abeilles, un casse-tête pour la reche; dossier central". Zie:

Bijen zijn belangrijk voor de natuur

Meer dan twintigduizend verschillende bijensoorten zorgen wereldwijd dat 80% van alle plantensoorten zich voort kunnen planten en evolueren.

Bron: Vaissière, B.E., Morison, N. and Carré, G., 2005. Abeilles, pollinisation et biodiversité. Abeilles et cie, 3(106), pp. 10 - 14.
(Tip: als deze link een pdf fout geeft, dan met de rechtermuisknop link opslaan als.. kiezen en daarna van harde schijf openen)

Zie ook deze boeken:

Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops

Bestuivers zijn onmisbaar voor 35% van de wereld voedsel en veevoerproductie.

Nieuw Zeeland slaat alarm over 32 bestrijdingsmiddelen die zeer giftig zijn voor bijen

Honey bees vital for agricultural industry
Sue Kedgley, New Zealand Herald 4 May 2009

New Zealand is slowly waking up to the realisation that honey bees are indispensable to our agriculture, horticulture, environment and economy.

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